Strategic Thought https://strategicthought.ndu.edu.pk/site <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">In an environment of rapidly transforming geopolitical realities, a more comprehensive all-encompassing deeper understanding of the issues is necessary. Pakistan’s existence and success in achieving its critical objectives is dependent on our comprehensive understanding of the environment around us, as well as our ability to convince others about our positions. Given the complex global political and geo-strategic environment, Pakistan needs a delicate strategic balancing and intricate policy maneuvers. The policy makers as well as academicians of defence, politics and international relations have to create resonance between the real world issues and strategic thought. There is a need to bridge the gap between real world of strategy and its theoretical, intellectual counterpart. Therefore, Strategic Thought Journal has been ploughed in to the national fabric of the academic scheme which focuses on strategic concepts and their relevance with real world.</span></p> National Defence University, Islamabad en-US Strategic Thought 2788-4899 EMERGING GLOBAL SCENARIO: POLICY OPTIONS FOR PAKISTAN https://strategicthought.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/22 <p><em>The global scenario is becoming unstable and unpredictable. There is talk of a new Cold War, of rival blocs. The new administration in the United States is signalling to other nations to make clear choices about their alignments. China, the perceived global rival of the West, advocates practical, expedient and business like postures and politics. For them the key word is pragmatism guided by mutuality of economic interests. The West fears that behind China-led economic interlocking of nations and continents - in the form of the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) - lurks a sinister strategic agenda that would displace and dispossess them of the space they had occupied for the past several centuries. </em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Bibliography Entry</strong></p> <p><em>Khan, Sardar Masood. 2021. "</em>Emerging Global Scenario: Policy Options for Pakistan<em>." Strategic Thought (3): 1-11.</em></p> Sardar Masood Khan Copyright (c) 2022 Strategic Thought 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 3 1 11 A NATIONAL SECURITY POLICY FOR PAKISTAN https://strategicthought.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/23 <p><em>Since its inception, Pakistan has faced multiple internal and external security challenges, but two internal issues namely political and economic instability have cast heavy shadows on its external policy. In the absence of political continuity, dedicated leadership and long-term policy formulation, the country has suffered the most. In the changing geostrategic environment and security milieu, Pakistan needs a comprehensive national security policy on sound footings and futuristic vision with proactive zeal to pursue its desired national security interests/objectives. This needs revamping existing national security structure and decision-making, involvement of academia, think-tanks and strategic community, and sensitization of media. &nbsp;</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong><span lang="en-PK">Bibliography Entry</span></strong></p> <p><span lang="en-PK">Hussain, Dr. Nazir. 2021. "A National Security Policy for Pakistan." <em>Strategic Thought </em>(3): 12-24.</span></p> Dr. Nazir Hussain Copyright (c) 2022 Strategic Thought 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 3 12 24 COVID-19 AND PAKISTAN’S ECONOMY CHALLENGES AND WAY FORWARD https://strategicthought.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/24 <p><em>Pakistan’s economy is currently facing multi-dimensional economic challenges that include slower economic growth, rising unemployment and poverty; large fiscal deficit, growing public and external debt. These challenges are not the making of the last three years, but these have grown over the last thirteen years (2008-21). All the three previous governments sought balance of payments support from the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and implemented its four decades old policy prescription. The outcomes of the policy prescription included slower growth, rising unemployment and poverty, persistence of large fiscal deficit and the attendant rise in public and external debt. Various suggestion and recommendation have been made as to how to revive economic growth, reduce budget deficit, protect the hard-earned and costly improvement in external balance of payments and bring debt situation under control. It should be the resolve of the government to not to seek any more balance of payment support from the IMF. Pakistan must learn to live without the IMF Program. </em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Bibliography Entry</strong></p> <p><em>Khan, Dr. Ashfaque Hasan. 2021. " COVID-19 and Pakistan’s Economy: Challenges and Way Forward."&nbsp;Strategic Thought (3): 25-50.</em></p> Dr. Ashfaque Hasan Khan Copyright (c) 2022 Strategic Thought 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 3 25 50 SINO-RUSSIAN DÉTENTE AND ITS IMPACT ON PAKISTAN’S FOREIGN POLICY https://strategicthought.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/25 <p><em>Currently, China and Russia are not only normal neighbours rather their strategic, security and political equation is also unmatchable. Fifty two years ago, relations between Moscow and Peking were at their lowest ebb as border clashes between the two communist neighbours had erupted and Sino-Soviet rivalry had not only divided the communist world, it also provided a valuable opportunity to the West, particularly the United States to take advantage of division. For Pakistan, thaw in Sino-Russian relations emerged as a positive sign because of past discord between Islamabad and Moscow all the way from the cold war days till the Soviet military withdrawal from Afghanistan in February 1989. The paradigm shift in Sino-Russian relations made it possible for Pakistan to mend fences with Moscow and enhance its foreign policy depth by broadening the scope of Pak-Russian relations by including strategic, security and military ties. This paper examines in detail how paradigm shift in Sino-Russian relations had an impact on Pakistan’s foreign and security policy and to what extent Russia, despite past differences with Pakistan, reciprocated new warmth in ties with Islamabad.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Bibliography Entry</strong></p> <p><em>Ahmar, Dr. Moonis. 2021. " Sino-Russian Détente and Its Impact on Pakistan’s Foreign Policy."&nbsp;Strategic Thought (3): 51-63.</em></p> Dr. Moonis Ahmar Copyright (c) 2022 Strategic Thought 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 3 51 63 SEEKING ECONOMIC SECURITY: PAKISTAN CONFRONTS HYBRID WAR? https://strategicthought.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/26 <p><em>The battle ground of the future has shifted to Economy. Pakistan has gone through 22 International Monetary Fund (IMF) Programs without converting any one of them into an opportunity to achieve self-sustaining high growth trajectory. The Western Powers have touted ‘democracy’, as the central plank of the new rules based order, knowing very well that they themselves only adopted ‘One person, one vote’ after achieving a reasonable level of development and prosperity. Historically, the misfortune of Pakistan began with establishment of the World Bank (WB) Advisory Group in 1954, which promoted a template of Development planning based on Foreign aid, elitist governance, conspicuous consumption, fossil fuel energy and luxury goods imports. This was a recipe of economic suicide. International Financial Institutions (IFIs) have made Pakistan a ‘basket case’. Pakistan needs a break and wide ranging home cooked Reforms for Economic take-off. </em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Bibliography Entry</strong></p> <p>Javed, Syed Hasan. 2021. "Seeking Economic Security: Pakistan Confronts Hybrid War?."&nbsp;<em>Strategic Thought </em>(3): 64-76.</p> Syed Hasan Javed Copyright (c) 2022 Strategic Thought 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 3 64 76 IDEA, POWER, AND THE ARRIVING FUTURE https://strategicthought.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/27 <p><em>The tussle between power and idea for ascendancy dates back to the beginning of organized community living. Ever since, both have been after each other. History shows that however powerful and invincible power may seem to be at a certain stage, its hold on the lever of power gradually loosens. As such, and as the American defeat in Vietnam and collapse of the Soviet empire suggest, power gets weaker when it deals with the forces of change. While the history of the past, all pasts, has been written in red, solid initiatives should be taken to transform the role of power, and create more space for new ideas and new discourses. In order to ensure that the arriving future is encouraged to work for peace and justice for all, the uncontrolled power of power shouldn’t be accepted as something inevitable. It should be converted into a positive energy to work for common good. But how? This paper attempts to answer this question. </em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Bibliography Entry</strong></p> <p>Mehdi, Syed Sikander. 2021. " Idea, Power, and the Arriving Future"&nbsp;<em>Strategic Thought </em>(3): 77-96.</p> Syed Sikander Mehdi Copyright (c) 2022 Strategic Thought 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 3 77 96 Changing Regional Security Complexes, Rising Powers and the Future of Strategic Stability in South Asia https://strategicthought.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/28 <p><em>The evolving great power rivalry between the US and China, and India’s desire to <br>de-hyphenate its securitization priorities from Pakistan and play a more active role in the US led Indo-Pacific strategy - to help contain China’s rise could blur the lines between the global as well as regional security complexes. India, which has formally given up its non-aligned status and joined the US led alliance - is being offered unprecedented assistance by the US and other western allies - to help build its military and political stature. The India-US foundational agreements negotiated between the two sides as part of their overall strategic partnership would facilitate India’s access to sensitive data from the US owned surveillance systems and plan future military operations against Pakistan. India is also engaged in ‘hybrid interference’ to create internal turmoil in Pakistan by using the media and international institutions like the Financial Action Task Force. To deal with these multifaceted challenges, Pakistan may have to reassess its national security priorities and develop an indigenous concept of ‘comprehensive security’ that must be based on its own strengths and weaknesses and should be able to cater for traditional as well as non-traditional security threats.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Bibliography Entry</strong></p> <p>Sultan, Dr. Adil. 2021. "Changing Regional Security Complexes, Rising Powers and the Future of Strategic Stability in South Asia."&nbsp;<em>Strategic Thought </em>(3): 97-112.</p> Dr. Adil Sultan Copyright (c) 2022 Strategic Thought 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 3 97 112 Future Wars and Change in National Policy https://strategicthought.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/29 <p><em>It is quite evident that the nature of warfare is evolving at a very fast pace. It is not difficult to conjecture that any future war will be radically different from the previous one. The next war will not be fought in the battlefield alone but increasingly in the <br>non-physical dimensions such as the cyber and the psychological domain. The physical aspect of warfare will be so heavily dependent on technology that the human beings will be limited to the side lines. Wars of the future will be the province of machines. There is an urgent need to adopt to the changing dynamics of war. The structures of the previous wars may not even suffice as reference points for future plans. In order to prepare for the next war, a paradigm shift is needed in our perceptions of impending hostile engagements. This paper posits that our national leaders and military commanders need to devise new concepts of defense policy that are in line with the emerging threats. It suggests a radical approach and a break from the past.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Bibliography Entry</strong></p> <p>Yamin, Dr. Tughral. 2021. "Future Wars and Change in National Policy."&nbsp;<em>Strategic Thought </em>(3): 113-125.</p> Dr. Tughral Yamin Copyright (c) 2022 Strategic Thought 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 3 113 125 Military Strategies of India and Pakistan: A Perspective https://strategicthought.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/30 <p><em>The paper argues that India-Pakistan’s crafting of escalatory strategies against each other is dangerously destabilizing the strategic stability and deterrence matrix of South Asia. While the geostrategic transformation has accorded India a critical role under the United States’ Indo-Pacific strategy to contain the rise of China. Most significantly, India’s conventional and nuclear strategy appears to be aggressive and, on the other hand, Pakistan has crafted a highly reactive “full spectrum” nuclear strategy too to inflict a severe punishment upon rival with aim to deter India from either coercing or imposing a limited war particularly in the wake of restructuring of its nuclear No First Use (NFU) policy. Pakistan’s volatility coupled with India’s restructuring of nuclear policy is a sure recipe for catastrophic disaster either by doing “crazy things,” “firing nuclear shots,” or by displaying “will” to strike first? </em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Bibliography Entry</strong></p> <p>Khan, Dr. Zulfqar. 2021. "Military Strategies of India and Pakistan: A Perspective."&nbsp;<em>Strategic Thought </em>(3): 126-146.</p> Dr. Zulfqar Khan Copyright (c) 2022 Strategic Thought 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 3 126 146 Pakistan’s Non-Kinetic Responses to Violent Extremism https://strategicthought.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/31 <p><em>Pakistan’s Counter-Terrorism mix represents a fine combination of kinetic and non-kinetic means. Besides the use of military, intelligence and police force, the state has also employed de-radicalization, rehabilitation and counter-narrative campaigns to counter extremism in its violent and non-violent manifestations. But a significant decline in accumulative number of terrorist incidents from 2014 onward has led the authorities to slash efforts and resources on soft counter-terrorism front.&nbsp; Using “Three Levels of Analysis” this paper seeks to provide a brief overview of the soft measures adopted by Pakistan during last two decades of its counter-terrorism campaign and argues that quantitative decline in the incidents of terrorism from 2014 onwards must not lead to counter-terror triumphalism. Terrorism in Pakistan has certainly declined but extremism persists, with certain new characteristics. To respond to these challenges there is a strong need to sustain the non-kinetic Counter Terrorism (CT) initiatives through institutionalized arrangements. &nbsp;</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Bibliography Entry</strong></p> <p>Iqbal, Dr. Khurram. 2021. "Pakistan’s Non-Kinetic Responses to Violent Extremism."&nbsp;<em>Strategic Thought </em>(3): 147-161.</p> Dr. Khurram Iqbal Copyright (c) 2022 Strategic Thought 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 3 147 161 Foreign Policy – Definition Formulation and Implementation Theory and Practice in Pakistan https://strategicthought.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/32 <p><em>Foreign policy, except where the protection of territorial integrity and sovereignty is involved, is the handmaiden of domestic policy. Domestic policy determines national interest and its advancement is the principal goal. Diplomacy is the tool of Foreign policy. Kissinger using the example of Cardinal Richelieu states that the first indispensable element of a successful foreign policy is a long-term strategic concept based on a careful analysis of all relevant factors. Kissinger notes that Palmerston as PM of Great Britain stated that “When people ask me … for what is called a policy, the only answer is that we mean to do what may seem to be best, upon each occasion as it arises, making the Interests of Our Country one’s guiding principle.” Domestic policy if realistically framed has to take account of the country’s natural resource base and to assess what resources are needed from abroad and to determine the price that may need to be paid to obtain them. The price may mean adjusting foreign policy including modifications in goals otherwise important for foreign policy. &nbsp;</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Bibliography Entry</strong></p> <p>Shaikh, Najmuddin A. 2021. " Foreign Policy – Definition Formulation and Implementation Theory and Practice in Pakistan."&nbsp;<em>Strategic Thought </em>(3): 162-179.</p> Najmuddin A Shaikh Copyright (c) 2022 Strategic Thought 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 3 162 179 Book Review: Pakistan in the Contemporary International System https://strategicthought.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/33 <p>Book Review: Pakistan in the Contemporary International System</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Bibliography Entry</strong></p> <p>Bashir, Dr. Shahid. 2021. "Book Review: Pakistan in the Contemporary International System."&nbsp;<em>Strategic Thought </em>(3): 181-182.</p> Dr. Shahid Bashir Copyright (c) 2022 Strategic Thought 2022-06-08 2022-06-08 3 180 182