ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION: A HUMAN SECURITY CONUNDRUM FOR PAKISTAN
Keywords:Environmental Degradation, Climate Change, Environmental Governance, Human & National Security, Extreme Weather Events, Food Security, Inter / Intra State Conflicts
Environmental degradation is one of the most significant challenges faced by the modern-day governments. Experts have attributed it as mother of all security problems, owing to its serious ramifications for food, water security, migration and natural resources which can lead to inter / intra state conflicts. Pakistan is specifically vulnerable to environmental degradation and is ranked as 5th most affected countries on Global Climate Risk Index 2020. Persistent heat waves, changing patterns of monsoon’s, earthquakes, floods, droughts and cyclones have direct linkages with reduction in agricultural production, food security, natural calamities and water issues in Pakistan. Frequency and intensity of Extreme Weather Events is on rise during last two decades. Floods in 2022 alone have displaced more than 3.5 million people and caused loss of 9% in country's GDP. However, inadequate coordination between stake holders, poor implementation, lack of awareness and fiscal constraints are few of the stumbling blocks in the process. A well-coordinated, consistent and integrated response by Federal / Provincial governments and other relevant stake holders is needed to effectively respond the colossal challenges faced by Pakistan.
Ali, Shahid and Dr Naimatullah Shah. 2023. "Environmental Degradation: A Human Security Conundrum for Pakistan." Strategic Thought 2023 (5): 97-114.